The Kyoto Protocol legally binded developed countries to emission reduction targets. For the first time, binding greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets were set for industrialised countries. The Protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. The second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and will end in 2020.
There are now 195 Parties to the Convention and 192 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The UNFCCC secretariat supports all institutions involved in the international climate change negotiations, particularly the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties (CMP), the subsidiary bodies (which advise the COP/CMP), and the COP/CMP Bureau (which deals mainly with procedural and organizational issues arising from the COP/CMP and also has technical functions). Since 1995, the COP has been held each year in a different country and attended by the 196 parties (195 states + the European Union) that have ratified the Convention to review implementation of the Convention and negotiate new commitments.
The twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties (COP), i.e. the annual meeting of all countries which want to take action for the climate and the eleventh session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) took place in Le Bourget, in Paris, France from 30 November to 11 December 2015. The conference was crucial because the expected outcome was a new international agreement on climate change, applicable to all, to keep global warming below 2°C.