India has played an active role in climate negotiations. It is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol among other international agreements for climate change mitigation and adaption.
In India’s ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contribution’ (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the country has made a voluntary commitment to lower its emissions intensity (emissions linked to GDP) by 33%, to 35% below 2005 levels, by 2030. To achieve this target, INDC 2015 highlights India’s commitment towards developing climate resilient urban centres. This is significant in light of the expected rise of India’s urban population (estimated to be 40% by 2030).
India will need to be concerned about providing human services in a sustainable manner to its large and predominantly poor population. This will require a significant domestic social and economic transformation, which will be difficult to undertake. It does, however, give India a great opportunity to create an innovative future.
The Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) – the nodal agency for climate change issues in India, in collaboration with the other ministries of the Government of India, different state governments and other concerned public and private agencies have taken various actions to address climate change related issues in the country as per the international and national Programmes and protocols.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is the nodal Ministry of the Government of India for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The broad aim of the Ministry is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country.
Some of the major actions taken include:
- National Communications to the UNFCCC (NATCOM)
As per the UNFCCC norms, India is periodically communicating to the UNFCCC about:
- Source-wise GHG emissions due to anthropogenic activities in the country
- Actions taken to mitigate emission.
- National Environment Policy (2006)
To ensure long term sustainable development of the Indian economy, the National Environment Policy was adopted by the Government of India in 2006. The main objectives of the policy are to:
- Conserve critical ecological and environmental resources,
- Ensure inter-generational equity in environmental resource use,
- Ensure livelihood security of the poor who are mostly dependent on nature dependent activities,
- Mainstream of environmental concerns into development strategies
- Ensure efficient use of environmental resources,
- Apply good governance to environmental resource use, management and regulation and
- Resource allocation for environmental conservation.