National Programmes

India has played an active role in climate negotiations. It is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol among other international agreements for climate change mitigation and adaption.

In India’s ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contribution’ (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the country has made a voluntary commitment to lower its emissions intensity (emissions linked to GDP) by 33%, to 35% below 2005 levels, by 2030. To achieve this target, INDC 2015 highlights India’s commitment towards developing climate resilient urban centres. This is significant in light of the expected rise of India’s urban population (estimated to be 40% by 2030).

India will need to be concerned about providing human services in a sustainable manner to its large and predominantly poor population. This will require a significant domestic social and economic transformation, which will be difficult to undertake. It does, however, give India a great opportunity to create an innovative future.

The Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) – the nodal agency for climate change issues in India, in collaboration with the other ministries of the Government of India, different state governments and other concerned public and private agencies have taken various actions to address climate change related issues in the country as per the international and national Programmes and protocols.

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is the nodal Ministry of the Government of India for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The broad aim of the Ministry is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country.

Some of the major actions taken include:

  • National Communications to the UNFCCC (NATCOM)

    As per the UNFCCC norms, India is periodically communicating to the UNFCCC about:

    • Source-wise GHG emissions due to anthropogenic activities in the country
    • Actions taken to mitigate emission.
  • National Environment Policy (2006)

    To ensure long term sustainable development of the Indian economy, the National Environment Policy was adopted by the Government of India in 2006. The main objectives of the policy are to:

    • Conserve critical ecological and environmental resources,
    • Ensure inter-generational equity in environmental resource use,
    • Ensure livelihood security of the poor who are mostly dependent on nature dependent activities,
    • Mainstream of environmental concerns into development strategies
    • Ensure efficient use of environmental resources,
    • Apply good governance to environmental resource use, management and regulation and
    • Resource allocation for environmental conservation.

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

In 2008 the Government of India launched the NAPCC outlining existing and future strategies for adaptation and mitigation. The Plan identifies eight missions running through 2017 that will “promote our development objectives while also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively”.

Currently, eight Missions are operational under the NAPCC, with each being a sectoral response to the impacts of climate change. Three of these — on solar energy, afforestation and energy efficiency — seek to slow down the growth of India’s emissions. Another three — on agriculture, water and Himalayan eco-systems — are about initiating measures to adapt to the effects of climate change. The remaining two — on sustainable habitat and strategic knowledge — are service missions and seek to create more knowledge on useful climate responses. In light of its commitment, the national government is seeking to broaden India’s response to climate change, by undertaking four new missions including Wind Energy, Human Health, Coastal Resources and Waste to Energy

National Action Plan on Climate Change featured image

State Action Plan on Climate Change

The West Bengal State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC) was prepared by a Committee led by the Government of West Bengal in 2011. The SAPCC highlights the criticality of Kolkata as a region prone to flood expansion during cyclonic storm surges due to inadequacies in the area’s infrastructure, land-use, socio-economic and environmental conditions, and drainage capacity of existing sewerage systems. Evidence of salt-water intrusion has been seen in the form of enhanced soil salinity tested up to 40 kilometres from Kolkata after the cyclonic storm Aila.

State Action Plan on Climate Change featured image