As with most Indian cities, Kolkata has grown significantly in recent times and with this urban growth has come a correspondingly growth in the demand for KMC’s services. This demand has come from increases in the fixed, as well as the floating population and as a result the city’s expenditure on the services it provides has increased dramatically, even though this can be partially offset by rising tariffs. The current pressure on the city’s infrastructure and service capacities will only increase, especially in consideration of the proposed plans to expand KMC by merging it with neighbouring municipalities – Salt Lake and South Dum Dum municipalities to the north-east and Joka to the south-west. As a result and assuming that there is no change in modus operandi, the indirect energy consumption of KMC, which leads to direct carbon emissions due to the consumption of electricity, can only increase.
During 2013-14, GHG intensity from KMC services has been estimated at 1.41-tCO2/INR (Lakh) of municipal expenditure. This means that for each INR 1Lakh spend by KMC, 1.41 tCO2emissions is generated.
Measures to reduce and control emissions within Kolkata
- The city has introduced Bharat Stage IV norms for vehicles in 2010.
- Two-stroke auto-rickshaws banned in 2009.
- Selling of pre-mixed 2-T oil made mandatory within Kolkata Metropolitan Area since November 2001.
- Ban on supply of loose 2-T oil.
- Introduced 50 ppm sulphur fuels.
- Up gradation of PUC emission testing centres.
- Unleaded petrol introduced since February 2000.
- Benzene content in petrol reduced to 3% from 2001 subsequently to 1%.
- Only LPG driven three wheelers are registered in Kolkata since June 2003.
- Petrol blended with 5% ethanol mandatory since January 2003.